Russian troops who refuse to fight, desert, disobey orders or surrender to Ukraine could now face up to 10 years in prison.
The new law was signed by Russian President Vladimir Putin on Saturday, local media reports.
It was approved earlier in the week by the Houses of Parliament.
Previously, deserting troops had faced five years in prison.
However, there have been widespread reports of Russian soldiers in Ukraine refusing to fight – or fleeing the country to avoid being called up.
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